Isfahan is an ancient city in the center of Iran. This city is the third largest city and the third most populous Iranian city after Tehran and Mashhad. The city boomed between 1050 and 1722, especially in the 16th century, during the Safavi rule, when it became the second capital of Iran. Even today, the city has retained a great deal of its glory past. There are numerous historical monuments in the city, some of which have been registered as a historical heritage site at UNESCO. Isfahan was selected as the second largest cultural capital of the Islamic world in 2006 after Mecca, and in 2009 it was chosen as the capital of Iranian Islamic culture and civilization, as well as the industrial capital of Iran after separating the Alborz from Tehran. The city is famous for its beautiful Islamic architecture and many beautiful boulevards, indoor bridges, beautiful tunnels, palaces, mosques and unique minarets. This has made it one of the half of the world in the Iranian culture. In December 2015, along with Rasht as the first cities of Iran, the city joined UNESCO’s network of creative cities in the world. Based on UNESCO’s standards, the city is a city that uses the innovation and capabilities of citizens in sustainable urban development. Naghshe Jagan Square is one of the largest areas of the world, a prominent example of Islamic architecture, which has been registered by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The weather in Isfahan is generally moderate and dry, and the amount of rain and snow is moderate. The maximum summer temperature is 39 degrees Celsius, which forms warm and dry summers. It reaches a maximum of 18 degrees in winter.
The most important historical attractions in Isfahan
Isfahan is rich in artistic and historic works:
Naghshe jahan Square
The Square was named Shah’ square after it was built. It was registered at the time of registration with the same name on the World Heritage List, and is currently listed on this list with the name of Imam Square. Before the city was designated as the capital of Iran in Safavid era, there was a vast expanse of garden in the area called “Naghshe Jahan”. The garden was also the location of the state-owned buildings and the palace of the Timurid and Aghouyunlu rulers. At that time, the garden field section was called the “Darbe Kooshk”. This section is located on the western side of the square as today’s world and at the site of the building of the Alli Qapu Palace. In the Saljughi period, Kushk Square was the execution of the prisoners and the holding of some official ceremonies such as the Nowruz celebration.
Mosque of Shah is the most important historical mosque in Isfahan and one of the mosques of the Naghshe Jahan Square, which was built during the Safavid era and is one of the most important buildings of Islamic architecture of Iran. This is an immortal masterpiece of architecture, tile and carpentry in the 11th century AH. The mosque was registered on December 15, 1310 with the number 107, as one of the national works of Iran. It has been registered with the UNESCO World Heritage Site with the Naghshe Jahan Square.
Thirty three bridge (sioseh pol)
Sioseh pol or Allahvardi Khan bridge with 33 spans, 295 meters in length and 14 meters in width, which was built by Allahvardi Khan Ondiladze on Zayandehrood river in Isfahan city and at the same time as Shah Abbas Safavi, and the place for celebration of water springs as well as the ceremonies of Armenian people during the Safavi period. The idea of construction of the thirty-three bridge was in the year 1008 AH and in the twelfth year of the reign of Shah Abbas I, and in the year 1011 AH, renewed commander Allah Verdi Khan Ondiladze Gruji completed the construction of the bridge. In Travelogue of European tourists of that era; references to this celebration have been made. At the celebration, held on July 13, people were taking part in the ceremony by sprinkling water and rose water. The Armenians of Jolfa of Isfahan also held their ceremony in the same bridge. This bridge is one of the architectural masterpieces of Iran, and is unique in its beauty and majesty. Percy Sykes called siosehpol as one of the world’s first bridges, Sharden called it the masterpiece of architectural and marvelous art and Dan Garcia called it the best works of Iranian architecture.
Khaju Bridge is located in the city of Isfahan and on the Zayandehrood River in the east of thirty-three bridge (siosepol). This bridge was built during Shah Abbas II era in 1060 AH.
Movable Minaret (Minar Jonban)
The monastery of Isfahan is one of the historical monuments of this city, where a mystic named “Amoo Abdullah Karlodani” was buried there. The remarkable thing about this monument is that by moving a minaret, the other minaret is also moving, and it is necessary to mention that each one has a nine meter width and 17 meters height.
Chehelsotun Palace is one of the historical monuments of Isfahan. The Chehel Sotoun Palace, which has an area of 67,000 square meters, was built during Shah Abbas I era.
The building was constructed by Shah Abbas as the headquarters and state government after the transfer of the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan. This palace was completed in 5 stages of architecture during the successions of Shah Abbas I, especially Shah Abbas II and Shah Solayman between 70 and 100 years. Even due to the existence of Nastaliq’s records during the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein, the last Safavi king, the decoration of the third floor was added or refurbished.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (built in 1602 – 1619 AD) is one of the most famous and historic mosques in the city of Isfahan and the historic complex of the Naghshe-e- Jahan Square that was built during the Safavi period. This mosque is a masterpiece of architecture and tiling of the eleventh century AH which was created by Mohammad Reza Isfahani, a renowned architect of that period. The Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque was built under the command of Shah Abbas I during the eighteen years and is located on the east side of the square, as well as in front of the Aleeghapou Mansion and in the vicinity of the Shah Mosque. This religious site attracts many tourists each year.
Vank Cathedral is the name of a church in Jolfa, this church is the Armenian churches of Isfahan and was built at the time of Shah Abbas II. Vank means the monastery in Armenian.
Hasht Behesht Palace
The Hasht Behesht palace is a historical palace in the city of Isfahan, which was built during the Safavi period. The building is located on two floors in a large garden.
Aligholi Aqa Bath
The bath in the Bidabad district of Isfahan was built by Aligholi Aqa in 1125 AH. This bath is a kind of Isfahan style architecture in the late Safavi era. The bathroom has two large bathrooms and a spacious room. Each of these two bathrooms is made up of two main parts so that men and women could use it individually at that time.
The Chaharbagh School
The Chaharbagh School Also Known As Soltani School and Mother-Shah School, is the last magnificent Safavi monument in Isfahan which was built from 1116 to 1126 AH for teaching religious during the time of Shah Sultan Hussein, the last Safavi king. According to many scholars, the mansion was both school and mosque with an area of 8500 square meters on the eastern side of Chaharbagh Street.
Shah Abbas Hotel
Shah Abbas Hotel is one of the great hotels in Iran and the city of Isfahan which is very important due to its architecture, which is based on the architecture of the Safavi era, and its location among the historical texture of Isfahan. In March 2017, CNN introduced the Abbasi Hotel as the most beautiful Middle Eastern hotel.
This bridge was built by an Armenia named SarAfraz during the Shah Solomon Safavi.
Isfahan Fire Temple
Isfahan Fire Temple is one of the historical monuments of the city of Isfahan and Khomeini Shahr, and is an ancient monument of ancient Iran. The site has an ancient historical background.