Muharam is the 1st months of Islamic calendar.
Muharam is the month of mourning and reminiscent of the death of the 3rd of Shiite prophet and his followers that took place in karbala(current Iraq). according to historians ,it was took place in 61 Islamic calendar.
Persians have mourned 13 days and night
In Ashura day ,imam hossein was killed by shemr who was opposed to him.
In a short story .the only prophecy of imam hossein was to show the right way to others.
The mourning ceremony has taking place in different Persian’s cities and towns variously.
This event not only has religious aspect but also social and political.
These days everywhere of Persia are held special mourning ceremonies
Mourning ceremony in Yazd:
Nakhlbardari :nakhl or naghl is a wooden framework which is considered as the coffin of 3rd Shiite imam. Every year at this month .the mourners has taking a part in decorating with special fabric ,mirror ,light ,colorful glass ,scimitar and so on .it is revolved 3 times by the mourners in Ashura day.
Mourning ceremony in Esfahan:
Esfahan like others has been participating in this occasion. they sing noha (poem and story that be inspired from battle of karbala) .they also have sinezani group that is used with their hands on their chest .Alam gardani is the other thing they do ,it is one of the most important and symbolic objects used as mourning rituals.it is viewed as sign of truth and bravery.
Mourning ceremony in busheher:
In this southern parts of Persia especially bushehr ,people has been holding a ceremony with playing damam and sinj.
Mourning ceremony in estahban-fars:
Chak chako (chagh chagho)has been hodling in estahban-fars province and other city of fars. people get together in main square circular to create a harmonic movement with two piece of stone or wood which is beaten by the mourners.
Mourning in southern khorasan:
Bilzani(this event has been holding over 200 years in khorasan .In Ashura day people get together in a place called hoseynieh with shovels. They raise them to the sky to blow the blades .the noise which is created is the mumble of the Ashura event .
Mourning in lorestan:
Gel mali: In this area people make a pool full of sand and water to create soft mud so cover whole body with mud.
Mourning in azarbayjan:
Tub ceremony is one of traditional custom that has been holding over many years. water tub is the symbolic object that the mourners put it on their head and turn around takyie or hoseinye.